The Mudumalai National Park lies on the northwestern side of the Nilgiri Hills about 80 km north-west of Coimbatore in the westernmost part of Tamil Nadu, on the interstate boundaries with Karnataka and Kerala states in South India. The park was created in 1940 to become the first wildlife sanctuary in southern India. Originally 60 square kms, the sanctuary was enlarged to in 1956 and subsequently to its present size of 321 sq km. The sanctuary is contiguous with Bandipur National Park, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Sigur and Singara reserve forests. The park is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. The Western Ghats, Nilgiri Sub-Cluster including all of Mudumalai National Park, is under consideration by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site.
There are three main types of forest: tropical moist deciduous, tropical dry deciduous and southern tropical thorn. In certain places mixed vegetation types are present. Tropical moist deciduous forest occurs in the western Benne Block, where rainfall is higher than in the other blocks.
The birds sighted often are Grey Junglefowl, Red Spurfowl, Grey Francolin, Emerald Dove, Green Imperial Pigeon, Pompadour Green Pigeon, Grey-bellied Cuckoo, Indian Cuckoo, Alpine Swift, Black-hooded Oriole, Greater Racket-tailed Drongo, Black-headed Cuckooshrike, Painted Spurfowl, Painted Bush Quail, Whitebellied Woodpecker, Lesser Yellownape, Greater Flameback, Streak-throated Woodpecker, Chestnut-headed Bee-eater, Grey-headed Bulbul, Forest Wagtail, Crimson-backed Sunbird and Loten's Sunbird.
Primates found include the Gray langur (Semnopithecus priam) and the Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata). There are as many as 35 Tigers (Panthera tigris) in mudumalai forest area , whereas the Leopard (P. pardus) is most often seen in the Kargudi area. Other carnivores include the Dhole (Cuon alpinus) , the Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena), the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) and the Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus) . The Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) population totals several hundred animals. Ungulates include the Gaur (Bos gaurus), the Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor), the Chital (Axis axis), Indian Muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak), the Indian Spotted Chevrotain (Moschiola meminna), and the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa). Rodents include the Indian Giant Squirrel (Ratufa indica maxima) and the Red Giant Flying Squirrel (Petaurista petaurista).